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Wind Chill and Winter Environment Management Info

Windchill_1 In addition to weather data, the National Weather Service also provides an assortment of calculators and other useful tools.

Their WEATHER CALCULATORS page provides over half a dozen calculation and conversion forms including wind chill.
The Wind Chill Table is a handy quick visual for how temperature and wind combine to produce that "feels like" temperature.
This and more information on wind chill can be found at their

Windchill: Frequently Asked Questions, Terms and Definitions

The dominant weather features for this week (Feb 4)  will be the Arctic cold and winds.

How windy is it ? The Todd Gross Weather Spotter Network reports wind information as well as precip.


Chimney downdraft is typically stronger in colder weather
and it may be more difficult for an appliance to overcome downdrafts in colder weather.
WI Spillage and Outside Temperature
Solid Fuel Systems: Venting Basics

What You Should Know About Safe Roads and the Winter Environment
an EPA document in PDF format

The Farmington River Watershed Road Salt Review - Farmington River Watershed- Route 8 Corridor In the Towns of Becket, Otis, Sandisfield and Tolland

MASS Highway's Winter Roads FAQ's
MASS Highway's Winter Driving Safety Tips

Massachusetts Highway Department's Snow and Ice Reduced Salt Areas

WINTER SAFETYNice comprehensive Winter Safety document prepared by the Cornell Coop Extension and the Warren County (NY) Disaster Preparedness Office (PDF)

and a document that contains more than you would ever want to know about winter road maintenance Syntheses of Best Practices - Road Salt Management - Transportation Associaton of Canada

Did you know....

Salt lowers the freezing/melting point of water.

Ice forms when water temperature reaches 32F.  Adding salt lowers this temperature: A 10% salt solution freezes at 20 F and a 20% solution freezes at 2 F. The salt dissolves into the liquid water in the ice and lowers its freezing point.


What are the limitations of road salt?

  The minimum practical application range for salt is a pavement temperature of 15-20°F and above. While salt will melt snow and ice down to a pavement temperature of -6°F, it can melt over five times as much ice at 30°F as at 20°F. Thus the effectiveness of salt is sensitive to small differences in   pavement temperature. Counties will attempt to apply only the amount required for temperature, time and use. Too little and the roadway will refreeze, too much is a waste of money and resources.    

When the pavement temperature drops below 15°F the effectiveness of salt is decreased significantly. At these lower temperatures, the county highway departments will typically cease straight salt applications and begin adding other chemicals to the salt such as calcium chloride or magnesium chloride that will lower the freezing point even further.

conditions must also be considered when deciding on whether to apply
salt or other de-icing agents. As the temperatures drop and the snow
becomes dryer, the wind can begin to blow the snow across the pavement.
If there is a chemical residue left on the pavement from a previous
salt application, blowing snow can be attracted to the residue and
stick to the pavement creating hazardous conditions that would not have
existed if no de-icing agents were previously applied. This is why
counties are sometimes reluctant to apply salt or chemicals when the
pavement temperatures are below 15°F. The effectiveness of salt can
also be affected by the type of pavement. For example, salt works
better on new asphaltic (blacktop) pavements than on tined concrete

    The salt being used today typically includes other ice melting de-icing agents to increase its effectiveness at lower temperatures and to help it better adhere to the pavement. Adding other de-icing agents to the salt also reduces the number of applications needed. WisDOT is always looking for new ways to reduce the amount of chlorides needed to return the roadways to safe winter driving conditions. Sometimes counties use sand and other abrasives at lower temperatures to improve friction on the roadway. Abrasives have no ice melting properties and thus their use is limited.
SOURCE: Wisconsin Department of Transportation